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Extra resources for A Cognitive Analysis of U.S. and Chinese Students' Mathematical Performance on Tasks Involving Computation, Simple Problem Solving, and Complex problem solving (Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Monograph, N.º 7)

Sample text

In particular, the estimates of time spent in school reported by teachers, students, or parents may differ from the official standard counts. 5 hours, which is different from the estimates reported by teachers and students in the SIMS. S. students. For example, Stevenson and Lee (1990) asked mothers and teachers to estimate 26 Theoretical Basis of the Study the amount of time spent on homework. S. mothers. S. students were almost as large at the first grade as they were at the fifth grade. S. children.

And Chinese Students' Mathematical Problem Solving 23 1991). , Cai, 1987; Hashimoto, 1987; Zhong, 1988). In OPMC, the lesson is organized around a single problem posed at the outset of the lesson, and the problem is changed multiple times along various dimensions as the lesson progresses. Henningsen and Cai (1993) suggested that a teacher can achieve coherent instruction by using the OPMC instructional approach. Stigler et al. (1987) observed both students' and teachers' classroom behaviors in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States.

S. S had fewer school days per year (178) than China (251), Korea (222), and Taiwan (222). , and Taiwan, ranging from 1 044 to 1 162 hours per year. By the fifth grade, however, the differences were more pronounced: fifth-grade children attended school for 1 044 hours per year in the U S . , 1 655 hours in Taiwan, and 1 466 hours in Japan. Thus, compared to Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan, the United States has the shortest school year. S. schools devote the least amount of school time to mathematics.

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