By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are consistently altering. well-known during the international, this booklet will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from similar fields akin to biostatistics, infectious disorder keep an eye on, healthiness advertising, genetics, medical epidemiology, future health economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of vital phrases. subsidized through the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of diversified international locations. the entire definitions have been reviewed many times via a global community of members from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth variation comprises good over a hundred and fifty new entries and big revisions of concerning the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. the various new phrases relate to equipment utilized in environmental and medical epidemiology.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
The theorem is some- behavioral epidemic 14 times presented in terms of the odds of disease before knowing the symptom (prior odds) and after knowing the symptom (POSTERIOR ODDS). BEHAVIORAL EPIDEMIC An epidemic attributable to the power of suggestion or to culturally determined behavioral patterns (as opposed to invading microorganisms or physical agents). Examples include the dancing manias of the Middle Ages, episodes of mass fainting or convulsions ("hysterical epidemics"), crowd panic, and waves of fashion or enthusiasm.
3 The first modern use of the method was a case control study of breast cancer reported by Lane-Claypon4 in 1926; from that time onward, case control studies became increasingly popular and widely used. 5-6 The term was probably coined by Philip Sartwell7 (1908-1999). 'Louis P C A. Researches on Phthisis: Anatomical, Pathological and Therapeutical. (Trans Wolshe W H). London: Sydenham Society, 1844. 2 Guy WA. Contributions to a knowledge of the influence of employments on health. JR Stat Soc 1843; 6:197-211.
Promotion. The second stage, in which a promoting agent induces an initiated cell to divide abnormally. Progression. Transition of initiated promoted cells to a phase of unregulated growth and invasiveness, frequendy with metastases and morphologic changes in the cancer cells. CARRIER A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. The carrier state may occur in an individual with an infection that is inapparent throughout its course (known as healthy or asymptomatic carrier) or during the incubation period, convalescence, and postconvalescence of an individual with a clinically recognizable disease (known as incubatory carrier or convalescent carrier).