Gregory K. McMillan's Advanced pH Measurement and Control PDF

By Gregory K. McMillan

This best-selling e-book offers a transparent, concise, and finished view of ways to pick, set up, and keep electrodes, regulate valves, and keep an eye on concepts for pH purposes severe for product and water caliber within the technique undefined. The publication covers each element of method layout together with the blending and reagent piping standards which are very important for a profitable application.
The crucial strategies are summarized as key insights and the easiest practices are provided as principles of thumb in the course of the ebook. The rising potential of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make latest pH measurements quicker and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complex batch keep watch over, adaptive keep an eye on, linear reagent call for regulate, and version predictive regulate are offered to minimize reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.

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Example text

8. ) BOH where: HA BOH = H 20 AB+ = H+ OH- - ~ B ++ OH - (2-3b) H 20 ¢) H ++ OH - (2-3c) acid molecule base molecule water molecule negative ion from dissociation of acid positive ion from dissociation of base hydrogen ion (proton) hyd roxyl ion The di ssociation of some common acid and base reagents is detailed in Equations (2-3d) through (2-3i). Note that sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide dissociate twice and yield ions with a double charge. HCL ee H + + Cl " (dissociation of hydrochloric acid) H 2SO4 ee H + + HS04- (2-3d) dissociation of sulfuric acid) (2-3e) HS04- ee H + + SO/- (2nd dissociation of sulfuric acid) (2-31) (1 51 CaOH 2 ¢) CaOH + + OH CaOH+ ~ Ca2 + + O H NaOH ~ Na + + OH - (151 dissociation of calcium hydroxide) (2-3g) (2nd d issociation of calcium hyd roxide) (dissocia tion of sodium hydroxide) (2-3h) (2-3i) Dissociation constants are used to define the relationship between th e activities of the components in eq uilibri um with each othe r.

The combina tion of adaptive control with signal characterization can be a powerful "one-two punch" to elim inate the nonlinearity. A W TI,e combination of adaptive control with sigrra l characterization can be a powerful "one-tw o punch" to eliminate nonlinearities. Figu re I-Sa illustrates a myriad of advanced control techniques for a twostage system where the fi rst stage is a static mixer and the second stage is a well mixed tank. It shows the use of signal characterization, pH and flow feed forward, adap tive control, and real-time optimization of the stage 1 set point to minimize reagent usage.

For highly concentrated strea ms, the pH becomes effectively a fu nct ion of water content. In o ther words as the salt concentration goes up and the water conce ntra tion goes d own, the pH w ill increase even though the concentration of acids or bases has not changed . Figu re 2-2a shows how the pH increases with the concen tration o f sod iu m chloride. : i " , , , ... '" ". Figure 2-2a. 5 • 1°·5 (2-2e) 1 + 3 ·1°·5 where: activity of hyd rogen (hydronium) ions (gm-moles per liter) c lI - concentration of hydrogen ions (gm-moles per liter) YH - activity coefficient for hyd rogen ion (1 for dilute solutions) molal concentration of salt ion i (gm-moles p~r kg of solvent) mj pl-l e negative base 10 power of hydrogen ion s I - ionic strength of stream at 25°C Z; = charge or valence of ion i aB - Eq ua tion 2-2a shows the definition of pH in terms of hyd rogen ion activity instead of concentration.

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