Read e-book online Apoptosis Methods in Toxicology PDF

By Perpetua M. Muganda

This particular quantity offers a unmarried, helpful reference resource for tactics that definitively establish and effectively quantify apoptosis. The e-book starts with universal equipment applied to become aware of and quantitate apoptosis, in addition to apoptosis signaling pathways in toxicological and different similar learn. It maintains with multi-parametric and phased apoptosis assays for detecting early and overdue apoptosis or distinguishing apoptosis from necrosis and autophagy. next chapters concentrate on fresh advances in genuine time and high-throughput assays that become aware of and quantitate apoptosis and apoptosis signaling pathways. ultimate chapters concentrate on fresh advancements in preclinical anticancer therapeutics focusing on apoptosis. Written for the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology sequence, chapters characteristic step by step descriptions of the methodologies, in addition to specialist advice and implementation advice.

Vital and authoritative, Apoptosis tools in Toxicology serves beginner scientists in addition to specialists, using quite a number tools from universal laboratory apparatus to high-end dear and automatic equipment in a position to acting genuine time apoptotic measurements.

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In this scenario, assays that detect phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3/7 activation, and chromatin and nuclear fragmentation work well as phased assays, and can be conducted concurrently. The externalization of phosphatidylserine occurs early, and may be transient in most systems [4, 13, 14, 16, 17], while activation of caspase 3/7 and nuclear/DNA fragmentation are intermediate and late events, respectively. The use of concurrent phased assays will ensure the detection and quantitation of all features as apoptosis progresses to different extents and kinetics in the various toxicant–cell systems being compared.

Nucl Med Biol 34:917–923 104. Wang F, Fang W, Zhang MR, Zhao M, Liu B, Wang Z et al (2011) Evaluation of chemotherapy response in VX2 rabbit lung cancer with 18F-labeled C2A domain of synaptotagmin I. J Nucl Med 52:592–599 105. Zhao M, Zhu X, Ji S, Zhou J, Ozker KS, Fang W et al (2006) 99mTc-labeled C2A domain of synaptotagmin I as a target-specific molecular probe for noninvasive imaging of acute myocardial infarction. J Nucl Med 47:1367–1374 106. Hoebers FJ, Kartachova M, de Bois J, van den Brekel MW, van Tinteren H, van Herk M et al (2008) 99mTc Hynic-rh-Annexin V scintigraphy for in vivo imaging of apoptosis in patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.

This is achieved through fluorescence micros- 34 Akamu J. Ewunkem and Perpetua M. Muganda copy of cells stained with a combination of cell permeable and cell impermeable DNA binding fluorescent dyes. One such assay involves the use of acridine orange (AO) cell permeable and ethidium bromide (EB) cell impermeable DNA binding fluorescent dyes. In this simple and inexpensive apoptosis assay, cells are dual stained with a mixture of acridine orange and ethidium bromide DNA binding dyes. Acridine orange is taken up by all cells, including those with intact membranes, and stains the nucleus of healthy non-apoptotic cells a uniform green color.

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