By M. Bourne
This e-book argues that the arming of clash is complexly dependent and hugely dynamic. It uncovers and describes the development and interplay of buildings and dynamics at worldwide and neighborhood degrees, which form the arming styles of either kingdom and non-state actors.
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Additional resources for Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms
4 This application conflates qualitatively different phenomena. Most types of ‘illicit’ arms flows are typically referred to as taking circuitous routes often involving several transfers, re-transfers and transhipment points. They, therefore, involve numerous distinct stages within the process of reaching the illicit end-user. Hypothetically, diversion from legal into illicit can occur at any stage. Categorising all overall flow processes in which diversion occurs somewhere as ‘grey-market’ does not help discern 42 Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms where diversion occurs, and what structures and dynamics shape or permit that diversion.
The phrase ‘awash with arms’ has been applied to many states and regions: Renner claimed in 1997 that ‘Small arms are so ubiquitous that many y regions off the world find themselves awash in them … acquiring them is “as easy y as buying fish in the market” ’ (Renner, 1997, p. 19). The vast global stock off SALW is often simply asserted and used as a premise for further emphasis on the distinctive complexity y of SALW spread. A core aspect off this premise is that global accumulation leads almost inevitably y to availability y at all levels.
There are, as yet, no globally agreed criteria bywhich states should judge whether or not to grant an export license – leading to a 30 Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms lack off common approaches and standards among even the major suppliers. Conventional arms exporting states tend to apply criteria on a deal-by-deal basis, taking into consideration a range off criteria. Some states have very few explicit criteria, amounting to an assessment off the possible implications off a particular transffer on the national security interests off the exporting state, while others make judgements on the basis of a balance off assessments of criteria relating to inter alia: the possible impacts on the regional and internal security off the recipient state, the risk off exacerbating human rights abuses or having a negative impact on sustainable development, the recipient’s record off compliance with international law, w the involvement of the recipient in armed conflict, and the potential for diversion to an illicit end-user.