Download e-book for iPad: Battle of the Boyne 1690: The Irish campaign for the English by Michael McNally

By Michael McNally

In April 1685, James II ascended the English throne. An overt Catholic, James proved unpopular together with his Protestant matters, and a bunch of nobles invited the Dutch prince William of Orange to take the throne within the excellent Revolution of 1688; James II fled to France. James lower back in 1689, a French fleet touchdown him at Kinsale in eire. On 14 June 1690, William led a military to eire and got here face-to-face with the Jacobites alongside the banks of the Boyne close to Drogheda. This ebook describes the occasions that resulted in the momentous conflict on 1 July that may make a decision the destiny of the crown of britain.

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And reality meant getting your hands dirty and your feet wet. ’ The affluent middle classes entered the new millennium demanding real ale, slow food, organic turnips and unbranded vintage fashion. They went to Glastonbury to dance in primeval mud, stopping off at the deli on the way home for a sourdough loaf, a bag of Egremont Russets and a chunk of dairy heritage. Urban chic sported clods of rural earth as farmers’ markets and organic boxes headed to town. Localism became the mantra of politicians, bankers and grocers.

The Game Act was justified as a measure to prevent poaching, but it was really about power and class. The aristocracy wanted to stop new money upsetting the old order and, by including petty rules about dog ownership, hoped to ensure the aspirational industrialists could only aspire so far. It didn’t last, of course. Money spoke. Rich cotton barons and ironmasters began buying up the estates and pumped millions into packs of foxhounds and gun dogs, determined to confer the ancient social status of hunting upon themselves.

It also played to the prejudices of a country which had long assumed that ancestry begat status, that blood dictated class. As people moved from the countryside into rapidly expanding cities, so did dogs. The mysterious science of breeding travelled into town too, stolen rural magic to be peddled on urban streets. Queen Victoria’s private vet, Charles Rotherham, told a parliamentary committee that the canine population had soared between 1865 and 1887 as the middle classes purchased pure-bred animals as domestic companions.

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