By Golder Wilson
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Additional info for Biochemisrty & Genetics
Murray, pp 412–434. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 3–29. ) Reverse transcriptase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that can synthesize first a single strand and then a doublestranded DNA from a single-strand RNA template. It was originally found in animal retroviruses. Primase is a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme that synthesizes an RNA molecule 10 to 200 nucleotides in length that initiates or “primes” DNA synthesis. DNA ligase joins DNA fragments and DNA gyrase winds or unwinds DNA. Transfer RNA, 5SRNA, and other small RNAs are synthesized by RNA polymerase III (RNA polymerase I synthesizes ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase II synthesizes messenger RNA).
A, adenine; C, cytosine; G, guanine;T, thymine; P, phosphate; S, deoxyribose sugar. (b) Base pairing showing two hydrogen bonds (broken lines) between A and T, and three bonds between C and G. (Reproduced, with permission, from Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW: Harper’s Biochemistry, 25/e. ) 2. The answer is b. (Murray, pp 412–434. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 3–29. ) In the classic double-helical model of DNA proposed by Watson and Crick, the purine (adenosine and guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) bases (see the figure above) attached to the sugar backbone are perpendicular to the axis and parallel to each other.
Qxd 11/14/01 10:36 AM Page 33 DNA Structure, Replication, and Repair Answers 33 27. The answer is d. (Murray, pp 488–504. Scriver, pp 3–45. Sack, pp 41–45. ) Plasmids are duplex DNA circles that may carry genes determining antibiotic resistance (R factors), sex (F factors), or toxin production (colicinogenic factors) in their bacterial hosts. They can replicate independently of the host chromosome or insert into the host chromosome. Plasmids are one class of mobile genetic elements (transposons) that are normally found in bacteria.