By Cisco Networking Academy
The Cisco CCNA Exploration curriculum offers a accomplished assessment of networking, from basics to complicated functions and companies. This path emphasizes theoretical suggestions and functional program, providing you with hands-on talents for designing, fitting, working, and preserving real-world networks. whereas wide on-line learn assets and finished textbooks can be found, many scholars and teachers have asked a reasonably cheap published source that may be used to check in areas the place net entry will not be to be had. This ebook is that source. Drawn at once from the web curriculum, it covers each ability and competency coated within the most recent CCNA Exploration Routing Protocols and ideas direction. This publication permits you to learn offline, spotlight key issues, and take handwritten notes. All subject matters are correlated on to on-line websites, assisting you simply change among offline and on-line content material.
- Gives CCNA Exploration scholars a cheap research source that may be learn anyplace web entry is not to be had
- Handy revealed structure helps you to simply spotlight and make notes
- Page correlations hyperlink on to the net curriculum
- Covers the newest model of the CCNA Exploration Routing Protocols and ideas course
Read Online or Download CCNA Exploration Course Booklet: Routing Protocols and Concepts, Version 4.0 PDF
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Additional info for CCNA Exploration Course Booklet: Routing Protocols and Concepts, Version 4.0
How does PC1 know to forward to packet to R1 and not directly to PC2? PC1 has determined that the IP source and IP destination addresses are on different networks. PC1 knows the network it belongs to by doing an AND operation on its own IP address and subnet mask, which results in its network address. PC1 does this same AND operation using the packet destination IP address and the PC1 subnet mask. If the result is the same as its own network, PC1 knows that the destination IP address is on its own network and it does not need to forward the packet to the default gateway, the router.
1 Packet Fields and Frame Fields Packet Fields and Frame Fields As we discussed previously, routers make their primary forwarding decision by examining the destination IP address of a packet. Before sending a packet out the proper exit interface, the IP packet needs to be encapsulated into a Layer 2 data link frame. Later in this section we will follow an IP packet from source to destination, examining the encapsulation and decapsulation process at each router. But first, we will review the format of a Layer 3 IP packet and a Layer 2 Ethernet frame.
The IP packet header has specific fields that contain information about the packet and about the sending and receiving hosts. Below is a list of the fields in the IP header and a brief description for each one. You should already be familiar with destination IP address, source IP address, version, and Time To Live (TTL) fields. The other fields are important but are outside the scope of this course. qxp 8/25/09 10:25 AM Page 25 Chapter 1: Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding ■ Protocol - Upper-layer protocol sending the datagram (8 bits) ■ Header checksum - Integrity check on the header (16 bits) ■ Source IP address - 32-bit source IP address (32 bits) ■ Destination IP address - 32-bit destination IP address (32 bits) ■ IP options - Network testing, debugging, security, and others (0 or 32 bits, if any) 25 MAC Layer Frame Format The Layer 2 data link frame usually contains header information with a data link source and destination address, trailer information, and the actual transmitted data.