By Roanld W. Langacker
This study monograph develops and illustrates an leading edge conception of linguistic constitution, referred to as "cognitive grammar", and applies it to consultant phenomena in English and different languages. Cognitive grammar perspectives language as an intergral truth of cognition and claims that grammatical constitution can't be understood or revealingly defined independently of semantic concerns. It argues that grammar varieties a continuum with the lexicon and is reducible to symbolic relationships (i.e. form-meaning pairings), and as a result that every one legitimate grammatical constructs have a few form of conceptual import.
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Additional info for Concept, Image, and Symbol: The Cognitive Basis of Grammar
TABLE —* Figure 12. Semantics is not fully compositional. g. the orientation of the table) that are not predictable from the component structures or other conventional units. Because such specifications are part of how the expression is actually understood in context, and may well be included in its conventional semantic value should the expression be established as a unit, it is arbitrary to exclude them from the purview of semantic analysis. There are nevertheless conventional patterns of composition that determine central aspects of a composite structure's organization.
Enclosure 39 A On vertical turf·«' u On Iniidt lurfacc* uh On vertical iniide lurfaec* ι MED lrtf 'it be long' v'lnlMc' mtiouic' mii Ihere iniide' -M In* li'iia 'in home' mv li'tta there iniidc home' i/Ar7«· 'it be long on vertical ituide turfice' uhl'tt ma ll'iie Ί\Ί ι long w»y» up to the ceiling iniide thil home' Figure 3. Integration of this sort continues at higher levels of constituency. The trajector of uh is equated with the relationship designated by the verb stem PW, which describes an entity surpassing the norm (n) along a scale of length.
Their value in (8), roughly On a vertical inside/outside surface' (cf. Figure 3), does not pertain in any way to a line of sight, so they do not necessarily have a topographical origin. On the other hand, a topographical origin is the only plausible means of accounting for their semantic contribution in (2), which does indeed involve a line of sight, as indicated in Figure 10. The block shape in Figure 10 stands for the body of a dog. Recall that (2a), with uh-, describes a dog's tail being chopped short when the dog is viewed from behind, while (2b), with ah-, describes the same objective situation when the dog is viewed from the side.