Elisabeth Badinter, Robert Badinter's Condorcet : Un intellectuel en politique (1743-1794) PDF

By Elisabeth Badinter, Robert Badinter

Lorsque los angeles Révolution begin, le marquis de Condorcet occupe une scenario privilégiée dans l. a. société. Mathématicien célèbre à vingt-cinq ans, secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie des sciences à trente-deux ans, il est membre de l'Académie française et inspecteur des Monnaies. Ami de Voltaire et d'Alembert, il apparaît comme le dernier des encyclopédistes. Il est célèbre dans toute l'Europe des Lumières et lié aux plus brillants esprits du temps. Disciple de Turgot, il a vécu à ses côtés ses réformes et sa disgrâce. Enfin il est le mari heureux de los angeles belle et spirituelle Sophie de Grouchy.

Cet homme comblé est aussi un homme passionné de justice. Il s'est élevé contre toutes les erreurs judiciaires de los angeles fin de l'Ancien Régime. Ami des Noirs, il lutte contre l'esclavage et los angeles traite. Ami des Protestants et des Juifs, il milite pour los angeles reconnaissance de leur citoyenneté. Adversaire de los angeles peine de mort, il soutient l. a. reason de l'abolition. Et il est le seul à réclamer pour les femmes l'égalité entière des droits.

Dès le début de l. a. Révolution, cet intellectuel s'engage dans los angeles lutte politique. Sous l. a. Constituante, il se prononce parmi les premiers en faveur de los angeles République. Député à los angeles Législative, il suggest son célèbre plan d'Instruction publique qui inspirera un siècle plus tard les fondateurs de l'Ecole républicaine. Député à l. a. conference, il refuse par conviction abolitionniste de voter l. a. mort du Roi et rédige le projet de structure le plus démocratique qu'on ait élaboré jusqu'alors. Partisan de l'union des républicains, il se détache de ses amis Girondins sans pour autant rallier les Montagnards. Décrété d'accusation en juillet 1793, il se cache à Paris jusqu'en mars 1794. Il écrit alors l'Esquisse d'un tableau des progrès de l'Esprit humain, son oeuvre maîtresse. Pour ne pas compromettre l. a. sûreté de celle qui l'héberge, il quitte son shelter. Arrêté, il est trouvé mort dans sa cellule le 29 mars 1794.

Telle fut los angeles vie de cet intellectuel engagé qui connut l'échec politique mais dont los angeles pensée, selon le mot de Jean Jaurès, fait partie du patrimoine de los angeles République.

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Guage, which cannot be subject to its divulged version, good only for those unable to understand it directly. ’ The Letter to Castelli began to circulate in manuscript form and was soon widely disseminated in secret, going beyond the boundaries of the small Galilean circle. Denunciations soon arrived, and the polemic spread beyond Tuscany. Lorini again, speaking for the Fathers of the ‘most religious Monastery of S. Marco’ in Florence, sent a letter to the Congregation of the Index. Six weeks later another Dominican, Tommaso Caccini, who had been thundering against the Copernican perversion from the pulpit of the church of Santa Maria Novella, made a spontaneous declaration before the Inquisition.

Did the floating or failure to float of bodies in water depend on their individual forms, as the Aristotelians maintained, or on their different specific weights, as Galileo claimed? Yet again, it was Aristotle against Archimedes. To settle the issue Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-1510. Detail showing the figure of Aristotle (Musei Vaticani, Vatican City, Stanza della Segnatura) Archimedes. Oil on canvas by Domenico Fetti, 1620, (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden) rapidly, Galileo published the Discorso intorno alle cose che stanno in su l’acqua o che in quella si muovono [Discourse on Bodies on or in Water], which went into a second edition.

Marco al Corso, 1747-1761) 48 Against the motion of the Earth 1612-1615 There has been in Florence an inept speaker, who has come out strongly against the motion of the Earth; but this good man is so knowledgeable about the author of this doctrine as to call him Hypernicus. Now may Your Excellency see from where and by whom poor philosophy is so mistreated. In late 1612 Galileo, scornful as usual, informed Cesi that the Dominican, Niccolò Lorini, professor of Ecclesiastical History at the Studio of Florence, had written to him saying that ‘the views of that Hypernicus, or whatever he is called’, seem Galileo before the Dominican Council.

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