By Nancy H. Hornberger
Biliteracy - using or extra languages in and round writing- is an inescapable function of lives and faculties around the world, but one that so much academic coverage and perform proceed blithely to disregard. The continua of biliteracy featured within the current quantity bargains a accomplished but versatile version to lead educators, researchers, and policy-makers in designing, conducting, and comparing academic courses for the advance of bilingual and multilingual freshmen, each one software tailored to its personal particular context, media, and contents.
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Extra info for Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings
Clarke (1981: 78) had similar ﬁndings for adult ESL readers (see also Carrell, 1987: 3). Edelsky (1982) also found that ‘the child’s second language proﬁciency was the factor that most directly inﬂuenced the relative syntactic simplicity of the English texts [they wrote]’ (226), even though the child’s knowledge of more complex syntax in the ﬁrst language might be high. Similarly, in a study that focused on the transfer of decoding skills from Spanish to English in beginning reading, Faltis (1986) found that, in addition to the extent of mastery of decoding in Spanish, the students’ ‘proﬁciency in English as a second language played a central role in affecting transfer’ (156).
Each of these continua is argued to have a bearing on the individual development of biliteracy, and especially on the potential for transfer in that development; however, research has not yet clariﬁed which, if either, end of the continuum is the more conducive to positive transfer. The simultaneous–successive exposure continuum In the bilingualism ﬁeld, a distinction is often made between simultaneous and successive bilingual language acquisition (McLaughlin, 1985) 22 Continua of Biliteracy 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3111 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 23 or early and late bilingualism (Lambert, 1985: 120).
The argument here is that, for an understanding of biliteracy, it is equally elucidating to focus on the common features and on the distinguishing features along any one continuum. 3 The continua of biliterate media works from the literatures mentioned above in support of each one. 1, contexts for biliteracy are deﬁned in terms of three continua: micro–macro, oral–literate, and monolingual–bilingual. 2, introduces the continua that characterize the development of the biliterate individual’s communicative repertoire: reception–production, oral language–written language, and L1–L2 transfer.