By Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz
Preface to the 1st .Edition
Teachers. linguists and psycholinguists have regularly been intere ted in
errors produced by way of second-language rookies, both of their speech or
writing or either. actually, newcomers' mistakes were the topic of
extensive research and heated controveL y for fairly an extended time.
There were significant methods to the learn of learner ' blunders .
namely Contrasti ve research and mistake Analysis.
The author's imperative purpose in penning this booklet has been to
provide a textual content for the Contrasti\'c and mistake research direction now
widely taught on the uni versity point in Iran. The formerly used
material for this path didn't conceal many features of errors Analy i
which are handled within the current booklet. The e-book can be meant to
provide training academics with insights into the character and kinds of
errors, with which they need to deal of their day-by-day profes ional life.
The fabric during this booklet relies at the author's lectures on
Contrastive and mistake research at significant universities in Tehran. It has
been labored out over a number of years and has confirmed to be satisfactory
and winning. makes an attempt were made to give the material
systematically. it's strongly believed that this systematic presentation
wiiirnake the instructing and studying of the fabric soft and easy.
It is was hoping that this booklet, with all its shortcomings, wi II create a
positive perspective in the direction of mistakes, either at the a part of educators and
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Extra info for Contrastive Analysis & Error Analysis
1 asked him why didn't he come to school yesterday. *Our teacher didn't tell us when was the final exam. 4 Contrastive Analysis of Lexis A detailed lexical analysis of English and Persian is beyond the scope of this textbook. Therefore, only some of the major lexical relations between these two languages will be briefly outlined below. Category 1. Words that are similar or identical in meaning in English and Persian, but are different in form. relem/ chair /srendreli/ A large number of words in English and Persian fall within this category.
For a comprehensive taxonomy of preposition errors as well as other types of errors see Chapter 7 of the present book. It needs to be pointed out that mother tongue interference is not the only cause of errors in the use of prepositions; other factors need to be taken into consideration as well. As mentioned earlier, some of the English prepositions are absent in Persian, and some with apparently translation equivalents have different functions in the two languages. As a result, many of the errors can be attributed to the MT interference; however, once the learner starts learning English and gradually builds up his knowledge of the target language, interference from other prepositions in English will emerge as an intralingual factor.
Rzeszowski, 1985; Sanders, 1985; Beebe, Takahashi, & Uliss-Weltz, 1990; Kasper, 1992; Connor, 1996; and DeCapua, 1998). Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis 24 Study Questions and Exercises Part I. Answer the following questions. I. What was CA concerned with? 2. What was the psychological basis of CA? 3. Which linguistic theory supported CA? 4. What are the pedagogical values ofCA? 5. How are second language learners' errors treated in CA? 6. What are the two types of transfer? 7. What are the main steps in comparing two or more languages?