By L. Buys, K. Mengersen, S. Johnson, N. van Buuren, A. Chauvin
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Extra info for Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: Assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry
Develop a "base case" reservoir model using estimated average properties for the development area and/or history matching available production test data. 4. Determine key reservoir properties. These are those properties which are expected to have a significant impact on the outcome (reserves forecast) and are not well measured. 5. Estimate distributions of key reservoir properties. 6. Run a Monte Carlo simulation using the "base case" dataset and incorporating the distributions of key input variables.
10% SUBTOTAL COMPLETION Est. Costs ($AOOO's) 15 120 20 15 15 25 ED 25 3) 326 15 15 Service rig Tubing (13), wellhead (2) Pump & prime mover Transportation, open hole logging Eng. & admin. 35 SUBTOTAL 76 TOTALD&C 5 5 $400 -STIMULATIONS These included water hydraulic fracturing, acid hydraulic fracturing, foam fracs and "dynamic" open hole, or cavitation, completions. Stimulation costs varied from $A250,000 for two-seam fracs in one well, to $400,000 for multiple-seam cavitation treatments or massive, multi-zone frac jobs.
Costs for these technologies in oil and gas are fairly high, unless accompanied by great economies of scale and competitive pressures, and/or by tailor-made low cost adaptations, through R&D advances. Furthermore, many oil and gas techniques have yet to be tried in CBM applications. In Australia and New Zealand, costs for drilling, completion and stimulation of wells have been fairly high, mainly reflecting the small size of the service industries supporting the oil & gas and CBM projects. There have been relatively few wells drilled specifically for CBM exploration and production in Australia (some 50) and fewer yet in New Zealand (12); cost data is available for only a portion of these.