Download e-book for iPad: Modern Indian Education: Policies, Progress and Problems by C P S Chauhan

By C P S Chauhan

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The use of written and summative tests should increase slowly with rise in the level of education. (viii) It also proposes to introduce the system of awarding "grades" to indicate the level of achievement of children at different stages in order to avoid or reduce the psychological tension, which is generated by the idea of "failure" in the examination. THREE CHANNELS OF EDUCATION During the first three five-year plans, education system in India did not experience any structural changes and was based on only one channel of formal education, which insisted on a single point entry, sequential annual promotions, and full time attendance, by teachers and students.

THE EDUCATIONAL IMBALANCE As soon as India became free, there was a pressing demand for education from all sections of the society as expected. The demand for education was more forceful from the disadvantaged classes than from the upper and upper-middle classes. Before independence, higher education was available only to a selected few belonging to the privileged classes mostly concentrated in the urban areas. With increased emphasis on industrialization, new employment opportunities emerged which were concomitant with the social, economic, scientific and technological advancement.

In the long run, this linear expansion persisted over several decades with in-built urban bias. This urban bias resulted in the establishment of the best of the institutions in the country, only in metropolitan cities like Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. With the result, the rural population had access only to the poor quality schools and colleges, which developed in them a lasting sense of deprivation and disadvantage. 5% for Scheduled Tribes have been provided under Article 46 of the Constitution.

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